How warming oceans could intensify or mitigate the effects of climate change is only just becoming known, as is the complex role that marine life play in regulating sea temperatures. The dramatic (and devastating) effects of acidification and warming temperatures on coral reefs, fish migration routes, spawning grounds, and ocean currents upon already stressed fish stocks require us to rethink how we utilize the oceans—particularly given the dangers microplastics and other toxins, as well as rising sea levels, collapsing ice shelves, and risks of increased storm surges, present to fisheries and coastal regions.
Clearly pelagic fishing and aquaculture pose questions for VAP because fish aren’t viewed as individuals, aren’t mammals, and cross national boundaries. Assuming that clean meat and fish alternatives offer dietary solutions to eating marine animals, this paper looks at different uses for the sea and the shoreline economies based on climate-change predictions and climate-resiliency strategies. The paper examines how coastal cities might use their waterways more efficiently: such as kelp and algae farming, renewable energy, artificial reefs, using oysters to replenish reefs, and wetlands.